nature-nanotechnology-april-largecoverNature Nanotechnology, 2017, 12(4), 343-350

Daryl McManus, Sandra Vranic, Freddie Withers, Veronica Sanchez-Romaguera, Massimo Macucci, Huafeng Yang, Roberto Sorrentino, Khaled Parvez, Seok-Kyun Son, Giuseppe Iannaccone, Kostas Kostarelos, Gianluca Fiori & Cinzia Casiraghi

Exploiting the properties of two-dimensional crystals requires a mass production method able to produce heterostructures of arbitrary complexity on any substrate. Solution processing of graphene allows simple and low-cost techniques such as inkjet printing to be used for device fabrication. However, the available printable formulations are still far from ideal as they are either based on toxic solvents, have low concentration, or require time-consuming and expensive processing. In addition, none is suitable for thin-film heterostructure fabrication due to the re-mixing of different two-dimensional crystals leading to uncontrolled interfaces and poor device performance. Here, we show a general approach to achieve inkjet-printable, water-based, two-dimensional crystal formulations, which also provide optimal film formation for multi-stack fabrication. We show examples of all-inkjet-printed heterostructures, such as large-area arrays of photosensors on plastic and paper and programmable logic memory devices. Finally, in vitro dose-escalation cytotoxicity assays confirm the biocompatibility of the inks, extending their possible use to biomedical applications.